I'm pretty good at sending strong signals to students that there's no use in coming to my office to discuss (read: negotiate) final grades. Yet roughly one or two students each year prove foolish enough to try talk their way into a (slightly) higher grade. I never budge.
Today, some benighted student dropped by my office, without an appointment, to discuss his final grade. Within a few minutes, it became clear to him that he had no real basis for disputing the grade he earned on his term paper, so he then turned to purported reasons why his grade for the course should be increased. Of the many foolish suggestions he made, one that stuck out was this: He told me that he should get "a little extra credit" due to the fact that he came to class. I explained to him in palpably annoyed tones that one does not get credit for meeting one's most basic obligation.
The point was entirely foreign to this student. He couldn't see how it was the case that by registering for my course he incurred the prima facie obligation to attend class regularly, and how this meant that the idea of giving him extra credit for attending class regularly is incoherent.
That someone could get through 3 years of university education and not be aware of this basic point about obligation and moral credit is amazing. It's also an interesting indication of how universities are failing.